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Defining Moment of Caravaggio’s Career

The defining moment of Caravaggio’s career came when he was awarded the commission for a decoration project by the Church of San Luigi del Francesi in Rome. He was required to create three large paintings that depicted scenes from Saint Mathew’s life. The works that resulted from this assignment are St. Matthew and the Angel, The Calling of St. Mathew, and The Martyrdom of Saint Mathew. These three set him on a new path in his career and were also an early showcase of his formidable talent .

The first experiment with religious themes gave Caravaggio’s career a new light. He developed an appetite for paintings inspired by biblical accounts of saints. He explored several of these in which he continued expressing his controversial ideas and interpretations. The more he gained experience, the darker his paintings became.

Caravaggio had a reputation for working quickly. He was capable of finishing a complete painting in just two weeks. His speed is attributed to his talent, which allowed him to paint directly on canvas and therefore, eliminating the need for sketches. The painters fall begun when he murdered Runaccio Tommasoni, a crooked businessman in Rome during his time. The exact reason why the artist picked a fight with him has never been revealed. Biographer, Graham-Dixon, points to Caravaggio’s probable lust for Tommasoni’s wife Livinia. Tommasoni probably refused to hand her in to the pleasures of the artist who resorted to violence.

After this event, Caravaggio ran to Naples and then Malta. He lived in constant fear for his life but despite the suffering that came to him after committing the first crime, he assaulted another man in malta. He was jailed for the second crime by the Knights of Malta. With his genius, he was able to pull of an escape and continued living as a fugitive until his demise at the Port of Ercole. Caravaggio was trying to return to Rome when he met his demise.

Perspective on Paintings

Caravaggio had already completed 40 works by the time he was taken in by del Monte. Early paintings mostly featured chubby boys depicting angels and lutenists. The painter is said to have had a queer interest in John the Baptist, who happened to be his favorite saint. Notable examples of this early works include “The Music Party”, “Boy with a basket of Fruit”, and “The Young Bacchus”. The boys that Caravaggio painted were either draped in loose sheets and at times, they were completely naked. This put a question on the artist’s sexual orientation. Apart from the nudity, the boys in Caravaggio’s paintings wear coy faces that are too suggestive for viewers to conclude otherwise. The artist’s only known assistant was a twelve-year-old boy by the name of Cecco.

Road to Success

Caravaggio was born in Michelangelo Merisi in the year 1971 in Caravaggio near Milan. His father was the steward and architect of the Marquis of Caravaggio. The painter had a troubled life in his early years. His father was a victim of the bubonic plague that killed everyone in his family when he was aged five. At the age of 11, Caravaggio was totally orphaned. The loss of his parents fueled his desire to succeed, but it was also the cause of a perilous life that eventually led to his early demise at the age of 38.

Caravaggio became apprenticed to Simone Peterzero immediately after he was orphaned. Later on, in his late teenage years, he moved to Milan where he worked as an assistant to other painters for a living. He joined a group of rogue swordsmen who were eager to fight at every available opportunity. During this time, he switched jobs several times because of an instability that was apparent in most aspects of his life. He begun selling his own enterprise in 1559 through a dealer. Cardinal Francesco del Monte became a high-profile fan of his works. He housed, fed, and paid Caravaggio because of the personal interest that he had in his work. Additionally, the prospect of making profit from Caravaggio’s paintings could have been another reason why the cardinal was willing to partner with the artist despite his appetite for violence, which often landed him in trouble. Historians who have researched on his life attribute his violent nature to his times. Caravaggio was born just a week before the Battle of Lepanto.

Fame as a Painter

Caravaggio’s fame as a painter was in part fueled by the numerous controversies that surrounded his life. His ingenuity in the face of adversity was unprecedented. It earned him quick popularity with politicians, priests, and other high profile citizens of the cities where he worked. The painter is said to have been aggressive, hot tempered, and rogue. “Caravaggio: A life sacred and profane” is a book by Graham-Dixon. It argues that the artist’s work was divinely inspired, which makes it sacred, although he willingly twisted it with his dark interpretations that made it profane. The majority of Caravaggio’s most popular works had religious themes. These paintings depicted scenes taken from popular Bible stories. Some of his paintings that were intended for religious purposes had visible prostitutes in the background or were endowed with eroticism. He argued that biblical scenes that are set up in lowlife streets should have these characters. Lowlife streets in Rome have always been littered with prostitutes, beggars, and all kinds of shadowy characters. However, there is enough evidence supporting the argument that Caravaggio’s work was neither sacred nor profane but a mixture of both. Caravaggio’s work was controversial. His reasons for depicting vulgarity in his paintings are evident in his biography because the most of the artist’s work was inspired by events in his own life.

Strategic Relationship

Strategic leadership fails when a company lacks clear objectives, is restrictive to change, or does not asses the risks. The ultimate outcome is often losses such as bankruptcy and accumulation of loans for funding unpredictable projects. While planning does not eliminate the material risks in business, it enables the leader to have a criteria to perform an evaluation of the project progress (Martin et al.,  2013,p.441) Given that change is inevitable, there is no single leadership model that is perfect. Strategic leaders combine attributes from different models. For instance, Steve Jobs was regarded as autocratic at times although he was a great motivational speaker.

Job’s Role at Apple

According to Steve Job’s biographer, Walter Isaacson, what made the CEO unique from other executives at the company was his communication appeals skills. Jobs was a talented inspirational and motivational speakers who conducted talks globally to political, social, and economic leaders. Perhaps it is through this attribute that the company managed to reinvent itself and remain relevant despite the projected collapse from tech experts. Following the introduction of smart mobile, Apple Mac IOS was regarded as obsolete in the smartphone market. However, Jobs managed to convince the shareholders that their new IPhone product would remain profitable. Working with a team of engineers, marketers, and competing companies such as Microsoft, Jobs supervised the reinvention of Apple Inc. back to profit making. Given that the 21st century Telco market is highly competitive, companies have to develop unique products for them to remain relevance. Jobs promoted the culture of innovation and creativity within the company by promoting a flexible working environment for the innovators. Unlike the Liassez-faire type of leadership where all the duties are delegated to the employee, Jobs maintained some authority over the teams (Scandura, & Dorfman, 2014, p.214). In fact, the biographer asserts that Jobs was known to be rude, mean spirited, and dictatorial when teams did not meet the deadlines.  Recent scholarly literature associate business success with level 5 leadership, but Jobs style contradicts those findings. The five attributes of level 5 leadership are niceness, humbleness, kindness, practice, and servant leadership. According to Fredrick Herzberg’s two-factor or motivation hygiene theory, “there are certain factors that can cause job satisfaction and another separate set of factors that causes dissatisfaction” (Dorfman, Hanges, and Brodbeck, 2014,p.670) Herzberg motivational theory resonates with Job’s type of leadership. The contradictions can be explained using two sets of factors. First, objective leadership is situational, which means the business environment varies according to circumstances. Thus, what works at a particular time fails in another situation. There are moment when a leader is required to give freedom to the working community while at other times, the workforce needs negative reinforcement for them to be motivated (Palanski, & Yammarino, 2016, p 410). Nevertheless, leaders must be mindful of human dignity as too much criticism could raise ethical concern. Ethics and business excellence is a controversial topic, which executives often avoid given the differences in cultures, race, ethnicities, religious, and political beliefs. Because of globalization, leaders must recognize and adapt to the different identities despite their personal biases and stereotypes. Secondly, although a leader might possess some inherent negative personal attribute such as arrogance, they may still have a clear vision, a passion for the company and its people, and an ability to inspire trust (Dimmock, and Walker, 2011, p.145). In Jobs case, he had a vision that he ensured everybody in the company was aligned to it. Thus, based on Jobs case study, it can be deduced that leadership character is of greater importance for business success than the individual attributes.

The major role and basis of leaders is to make tough decisions, which are aimed at meeting the organization’s objective. While decision making process is an impulsive condition in life, strategic leaders follow the best practices and plan, thus, making this a process rather than an event. The stages for strategic decision making are establishing the objectives, finding the alternatives, and assessing the risks. Since the aim of any decision is to effect some sort of change, strategic leaders use change indicators for the process. Some of change leadership indicators within Apple Inc. includes more employee involvement in most levels of decision making and increased accountability and responsibility for individual workers. Also, the organization focuses on having fewer mangers and increased participation in the form of self-managing teams, open communication channel between, greater diversity at the workplace. The managers encourages and motivates employees in order to have a better working teams through training and retaining. The company is always in search for workers with specialized skills (Briggs, Morrison, and Coleman, 2012,p.7). A good environment for decision making process is based on mutual respect, integrity, and trust. However as Jobs indicated, this must be along the organizations culture and traditions.

Ejemplos de modelos de liderazgo y liderazgo dentro de las organizaciones

Ejemplos de modelos de liderazgo y liderazgo dentro de las organizaciones Hay más de diez tipos de liderazgo y algunos tienen atributos superpuestos. Los estudios de liderazgo son un campo expansivo de académicos que atraviesan múltiples disciplinas y el sector profesional. La importancia de los negocios para la excelencia y el éxito dentro de la organización se estudia ampliamente en el comportamiento y las culturas de la organización. El liderazgo de calidad no solo es importante para las entidades con fines de lucro sino también para las instituciones sin fines de lucro. Por ejemplo, organizaciones como la Cruz Roja o las Naciones Unidas no tienen fines de lucro y necesitan gestión y liderazgo de calidad. Notablemente, aunque los términos líder y gerentes se usan indistintamente en diferentes contextos, existen varias diferencias entre los dos conceptos. Sin embargo, parte del objetivo de los estudios de liderazgo es transformar a los gerentes en líderes. Dado que todos los líderes pueden convertirse en gerentes, pero no todos los gerentes pueden ser líderes, este ensayo examina las cualidades de liderazgo que hace a un gerente de calidad. Además, el artículo evalúa algunas empresas que han aplicado el liderazgo estratégico y han logrado un gran éxito. Cabe destacar que el documento profundiza en el tipo de liderazgo estratégico de Steve Jobs que transformó a la compañía Apple en un líder mundial en telecomunicaciones.